Tag: Pancreas

What are the different types of diabetes?

diabetes-week2016-11

This week marks the beginning of Diabetes Week. This year the main focus is on, the misconceptions people have in terms of what diabetes is and how it affects individuals. The number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014.

There are many myths which surround diabetes, that make it hard for others to believe how deadly diabetes can be. Stereotypes and stigmas have created an inaccurate image of  what the condition really is. As a diabetic blogger, I feel the responsibility to spread the correct message to my readers.  Let’s start by setting the message straight about the different types of diabetes that can occur.

There are many types of diabetes, the main types include; type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes and MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young). Diabetes is a long- standing condition that affects the body’s ability to process glucose (sugars). All these types cause blood glucose levels to increase. Glucose levels are high due to the body’s inability to use the glucose properly.

This occurs because the pancreas either:

  • No longer produces insulin
  • The amount of insulin being produced is not enough, or
  • The insulin that is being produced does not work properly (Insulin resistance)

Therefore glucose is not able to enter into the cells and remains in the blood stream.

Type 1

Type 1 is an autoimmune disorder, which occurs due to the body’s immune system attacking and killing beta cells (insulin cells) in the pancreas, where they are made. The reason why this occurs still hasn’t been discovered, however there are researchers constantly working to find out this very reason. This autoimmune disorder is usually diagnosed in children but can also affect people up to the age of 30, resulting in no insulin being produced. People with this condition learn to use insulin therapy to manage their diabetes.

Type 2

Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. It occurs due to insulin resistance, where the pancreas either does not produce enough insulin or the insulin that is being produced does not work properly. Type 2 diabetes for some people can be managed through diet and exercise. Some people also need medication to manage their blood glucose levels/ diabetes.

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes affects women during pregnancy. This usually occurs during the second or third trimester. Women who develop gestational diabetes during their pregnancy usually don’t have diabetes beforehand and for some women gestational diabetes disappears after the birth of the baby. Women who are diagnosed with gestational diabetes in the first trimester, there is a possibility that the condition existed beforehand.

During the second trimester blood tests are done to determine whether or not gestational diabetes is present. If gestational diabetes was present in previous pregnancies, then tests are performed earlier.

Pregnancy hormones can affect the body’s ability to allow insulin to function as it should. This can then cause insulin resistance to occur. Pregnancy already puts a huge strain on the body, so this additional strain on the body can sometimes cause some women to develop gestational diabetes.  Woman who are likely at risk include, women who have suffered from gestational diabetes before, overweight or obese women, women who have had very large babies and have had a family history of diabetes.  Ethnicity also plays a huge part in the development of gestational diabetes. If you are of, Caribbean, South Asia, African or Middle Eastern decent, then you are at a higher risk of developing gestational diabetes.

MODY diabetes or Type 3 diabetes

What is this type? MODY stands for Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young. This type of diabetes is quite different from both Type 1, Type 2 and gestational diabetes. It is strongly present in families and is triggered by a mutation in a single gene. If a person carrying this gene has a child with a person who doesn’t carry the gene, then any children they have will have a 50 % chance of inheriting the gene. If a child inherits this gene they will then go onto develop MODY before they reach 25 years old, whatever their weight, lifestyle or ethnicity. These diabetic also don’t necessarily need to take insulin either.

Types of MODY:

  • HNF1-alpha– this is the most common type of MODY and can be found in populations with European ancestry. It accounts for about 70% of all cases in Europe. People with this type of MODY don’t need to take insulin, instead they take a mixture of sulphonylureas tablets.

  • HNF4-alpha– this type of MODY is very rare and usually affects people whose birth weight was more than 9lbs or suffered a low blood sugar level after birth. People who have this type of MODY are also treated with sulphonylureas tablets.

  • HNF1-beta – People with this type of MODY develop several problems which can include; renal cysts, abnormalities in uterine, gout as well as diabetes. With this type of MODY, if diabetes develops insulin treatment becomes essential. A healthy diet and exercise must also be followed to manage diabetes better.

  • Glucokinase – This gene once present and functioning allows the body to recognise increase in blood glucose levels. If this gene isn’t working then the body isn’t able to detect high blood glucose levels, allowing the BG level to go higher than it should. The BG level is only slightly higher between ( 5 – 8 mmols/l). There are no noticeable symptoms and it can only be detected through routine tests. No treatment is needed for this type of MODY.

It’s extremely important to know if you have any of these MODY types. If treatment is needed then you can then get it. Also if you have the gene, there is a 50 % chance that you could then pass this gene onto your children. Therefore genetic testing usually is extended to other family members.

I hope that this has helped you to understand the different types of diabetes that can occur.  For more information on the prevalence of diabetes and also if you want to help to spread the correct message, then click the links below.

Diabetes Facts and stats 

Diabetes Awareness Poster (print and share)

You can also follow me on twitter, instagram and facebook.

Thanks for stopping by friends

Amina xx

Get creative with Diabetes

Since, I didn’t get a chance to join in on the Diabetes blog week. I wanted to post this creative piece, which I had already prepared a while ago.

The moment I realised,

I RUN ON INSULIN

The Bond

Where would I be, without my insulin pump?

My constant supply, my night and day.

My everything, my all, the strength by my side.

My companion and I, we struggle, we stride, yet we continue to survive.

You who I can depend on, I will defend you, always on your side.

You endure, my highs, my lows, with no word, no sighs.

You are forever committed to me, for as long as I stay devoted to you.

What would life be, without your endless support?

Every day a new challenge, we fight, we fall, yet we’re still standing tall.

Oh How I envy you sometimes, looking all so poised and refine.

Memory takes me back, to when me and mine would work just fine.

Connected we will stay, till the end of my days

Me and my insulin pump.

By Sugar High Sugar Low

 

Work your sites

© Dmitry Lobanov - Fotolia.com

© Dmitry Lobanov – Fotolia.com

By sites I mean, injection and insulin pump sites. The site, where a needle must pierce the skin to allow insulin to be delivered into the body. As a type 1 diabetic, this is something which can’t be avoided. Whether you’re using an insulin pump or injecting, it’s really important that you rotate the sites you use.

“ROTATION IS KEY “

After many years of injecting, and now using an insulin pump. I must admit at times I do get comfortable with using certain sites on my body. It’s very easy to slip into the “bad” habit of using the same sites over and over.

Print“It gets comfortable! It’s easy to manage. It doesn’t hurt. If I try a new spot will it bleed? Will I have to redo it? Let’s just stick with the thigh today.”

No rotation = lumpy bumpy body

Over use of sites will stimulate the development of lumps. These lumps often seem soft and grape like at the site of injection. The proper term for these lumps are,

Fat hypertrophy also known as hypertrophy or insulin hypertrophy.

These lumps are a build up of extra fat deposits, due to the site being used too often. The Insulin injected isn’t able to flow around the body freely. The way insulin is absorbed is changed, and is unable to circulate as it should do. Therefore making it more difficult to keep blood glucose levels on target.

So what sites can we use?

Here are a few of the sites which can be used when attaching an insulin pump or when injecting with injections. Also refer to the picture below.

  • Stomach
  • Bottom
  • Waist area (love handles)
  • Thighs
  • Backs of upper arms

sites

When I use to inject 5 times a day, the frequency of lumps and bumps occurring were very common. I changed the size of my needles to the (novoFine 0.3 x 8mm needles) to help to prevent these lumps. Even though I was “rotating my sites”, and I now had “these finer smaller needles” I would still develop small bumps under the skin. I found that exercise helped to get rid of these lumps.

Now that I’m using an insulin pump the occurrence of lumps and bumps are far fewer. I try not to leave my insert on a site for more than 3 days ( *this also happens to be the maximum recommended time by the *CDC). After this point, I find that my skin does become raised and bumpy.

Site Rotation tips

“Monitor those blood glucose levels (BGL’s), because literally your life depends on it.”

As time goes by you will start to realise which sites are better for the best BGL control. Talk with your diabetes team and see if their suggestions are good for you.

  • Avoid injecting or placing your pump near your belly button, or near any moles or scars. Tissue in these area are usually a lot harder. Therefore insulin absorption will be a lot slower.
  • Try to use your outer upper arm, this part is a lot fattier. Placing an insert or injecting in this site is difficult, so when I put on an insert I press my arm against a wall to attach it.
  • Thighs – avoid inner thighs, because it could be more painful!
  • Change insert every 2 -3 days and change needles after every use!
  • Make sure the area you are going to inject or attach your pump to is clean.
  • Don’t get comfortable. Don’t use the same sites. Work that body! Avoid those unsightly lumps and bumps
  • Get your sweat on. Try to find an activity that you can maintain and most of all enjoy!

Which are my best sites you ask?

Well, the best sites for me have changed throughout the years. I try my best to avoid my thighs and stomach area (when I was on injections these were my favourite sites). By frequently injecting in those site it has left me with a few small lumps, but being active has helped to reduce and even get rid of the lumps. At the moment, I’ve found that the upper backs of my arms and my derrière region are great for the best blood glucose levels and my overall control. I have no idea why this is. It’s just right for me right now. Everyone’s best sites are different. It’s up to you to figure out which site is best for insulin absorption.

“Remember to rotate your sites, avoid those lumps and bumps on your skin, and find the best sites for you to be able to achieve the best blood glucose levels.”

Changing the “insert” before it needs to be changed

insert 1-This pictures to the right is a insert from different angles. The Picture towards the bottom is the piece that is inserted into my skin. The tubing is connected to my insulin pump.

There are times, when I attach my insert and it just won’t stay put, It doesn’t feel comfortable or it is stuck to me like glue. These all result in me having to change the site. These are a few examples of when I may have to change my insert.

  • Accidentally rubbing my hand over my insert and detaching it. I need to replace it.
  • Creaming my hands and skin and I start to feel my insert peeling.
  • As I attach the insert I get a sharp pain, followed by blood coming through the tubing of my pump. I need to replace it.
  • In the middle of the night, my pump has a fit, because there is an occlusion in the tubing.
  • Time to replace my insert and it just won’t come away from the site. AHHH!

Have you ever had lumps and bumps? Which sites are best for you? Do you get comfortable with certain sites? What do you do to stay active and get rid of those lumps?

*CDC – Centers of Disease Control

 

Avoid retinopathy

Let’s prevent retinopathy

How can we avoid these complications? Here are some of the steps I try my best to take to avoid complications.

1.      BLOOD SUGARS, BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS, BLOOD SUGARS. Get them as tight as possible. Stay within the target levels.I can’t stress how important this is. I try to test my BGL at least 8 – 10 times in a day.

Type 1 diabetic (adult) before meals should be aiming for 4-7mmol/l

Two hours after meals try to aim for less than 9mmol/l

Type 1 diabetic (child) before meal should be aiming for 4-8mmol/l

Two hours after meals try to aim for less than 10mmol/l

2.      HbA1c, A1c = Try to get this between 48 – 58mmol/mol (6.50% – 7.50%)

3.  Make sure blood lipids (fats) are in a healthy range.

4.      Get your eyes tested, every 6 months to a year. Let’s avoid any complications occurring.

5.      If you have high blood pressure, get this checked frequently.
125/80 (healthy range)

6.      I always try to eat healthy.

.   Stay Active. Get that blood circulating

8.  I always attend my annual diabetes check ups.

9. Look after your feet

ClearlyHealth

Don’t complicate it! Part 1

DIABETIC COMPLICATIONSAVOID, AVOID, AVOID!!!!!

This is what I think when I see, or hear  diabetic complications.

One of the reasons why I stress the importance of having good blood glucose levels and HbA1c control, is to avoid complications caused by diabetes. These complications can affect the eyes, the nerves, the kidneys, muscles and the heart. This is something which worries me a great deal. However my worries, drive me to want to have  better, tighter control of my blood glucose levels.

Complications are less likely to develop and are not as severe with diabetics who have good blood glucose level control.  If I can put in the effort to have the best control that I can, these complications are less likely to arise.

“Complications with a capital C”

Complication number 1

Retinopathy –  This is one of the complications which totally freaks me out.This complication causes damage to the retina. All diabetics are at risk of developing retinopathy, whether they control their diabetes by diet, tablet or insulin. There is a much greater risk, if your diabetes isn’t controlled well, if you have high blood pressure and if you’ve had your diabetes for a prolonged period of time.

Illustration of hemorrhage in retina - Diabetic Retinopathy

© Sophia Winters – Fotolia.com

Poor control and high blood glucose levels will cause retinopathy to occur. Over a period of time these high blood glucose levels, will affect the small blood vessels in the retina,  causing them to become inflamed and damaged without the patient’s knowledge.

Blood vessels burst causing haemorrhage and swelling. Blood leaks to the back of the eye (in the picture above, this is represented as spots near the vessels) and oxygen is unable to enter the retina. This results in the growth of abnormal blood vessels on the surface of the retina.  Without treatment, retinopathy continues to progress, eventually leading to blindness. Having good blood glucose control and ultimately a good HbA1c, will help to reduce the risks caused by retinopathy.

There are different types of retinopathy

1. Background Retinopathy (or non- proliferative retinopathy)

In this initial stage, many people do not notice any changes in their vision. These early changes are reversible and do not affect vision.  Diabetics must have regular eye checks to prevent these early stages progressing to a more serious stage of retinopathy. If this early stage occurs, it can be detected and monitored closely.

2.  Maculopathy:

Glucose build up in the eye and damages the small blood vessels in the retina. Diabetics can develop a condition called macular edema. Damaged blood vessels leak fluid onto an area of the eye called the ‘macula’. This part of the eye allows you to see fine detail.  With maculopathy the macula becomes swollen and can causes vision to be become blurred.

3. Proliferative:

As retinopathy develops, the retina becomes deprived of a good blood supply, due to damaged blood vessels. This causes blood vessels to proliferate (or grow). Due to a lack of oxygen in the retina and as the eye tries to repair itself.  This causes new brittle blood vessels to grow in the retina. These new blood vessels can bleed and grow rapidly. If this isn’t treated quickly it can cause vision to be clouded, resulting in a damaged retina. In severe cases this can cause retinal detachment, and glaucoma.

There are 3 main treatments used for diabetic retinopathy, which have been effective in decreasing the loss of vision.These treatments include,

To be continued…………………………….

What is Type 1 Diabetes?

What is Type 1 Diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes occurs due to a lack of the hormone Insulin in the body (Insulin is  produced in the pancreas). When food is ingested this lack of Insulin causes blood glucose levels to rise as the glucose builds up in the blood stream.

©Clearly Health

TAKE CONTROL OF YOUR DIABETESBeing diagnosed with type 1 diabetes meant that I had to accept the dreadful truth that I now had this for the rest of my life and that I was now Insulin dependent.

There are two options for Insulin treatment. Either by injection or Insulin pump therapy. When I first became diabetic I only had the option of injecting therefore  I started my insulin treatment with injections, injecting twice a day. But as I grew,  my body required a lot more insulin. So my twice a day dose was then increased to five times a day. I asked myself, ‘How was I going to do five injections a day?’ I had only just got the hang of having to inject twice a day Print

pensAs difficult as I thought it was going to be, I remained calm and positive about the new situation I found myself in. I said to myself, ‘Amina you have no choice. It’s either you take control of this condition by taking five injections a day or succumb to it and let it control you.’ Despite my apprehensions,  I  remained on five injections a day for many years. As doubts crept into my mind again,  I remember thinking I was going to be taking five injections a day  forever (which seemed like a long time). During August 2009,   I was contacted by my diabetic healthcare team to tell me that my insulin pump had arrived. It couldn’t have come sooner! Print

pump

My Diabetes……

How it all started

At the age of 11, I was diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes. The symptoms were very subtle to start with. Sheer exhaustion was the first to hit me. My mother began to question ”why was I always tired?” I went to the doctors and was told I was anaemic and needed iron tablets. I took them but still the tiredness continued. A few weeks later, the symptoms came on rapidly over a course of a week. I was constantly exhausted, carrying 2Litre bottles of water around with me unable to quench my never ending thirst. Waking up several times during the night became routine and not to mention the drastic weight loss which occurred over that week. I was a walking skeleton!!

Diabetes is a common trait with the women in my family which made both me and my mother more aware of some of the symptoms at the time. Knowing some of these symptoms are really important as it can affect anyone of us and it may make a difference in saving someone’s life. But to this day, I still believe that the little knowledge and experience we had helped us take action which helped me get the treatment that I needed.

My diagnosis at such a young age was a great shock and difficult to understand at first. I knew that I had to accept and deal with it if I wanted to be healthy. I can honestly say that I’ve had a great support network from my family, friends and some of the nurses and doctors. On the other hand, even with their support I’ve still had my ups and downs and ultimately I’ve realised that it’s my diabetes and my responsibility. I’ve learnt that my condition is something that I shouldn’t hide from or be ashamed of, but something that is a part of me but does not define me. Living with type 1 diabetes, even with its difficulties, I can definitely say that it has taught me the virtue of patience and being patient.

Diabetes UK have a campaign which is designed to raise more awareness for Type 1 diabetes. Its called 4T’s.

4Ts A4 Poster

Please click on the highlighted link above, print and post the poster somewhere so everyone can see it and learn these symptoms. Thank you.