Throughout the years, we’ve seen many advances in Diabetes technology. From the Insulin pumps, to the Freestyle Libre and so many other amazing technologies.
The most recent and major development is that of the Bionic Pancreas. This long-anticipated technology is able to completely manage an individual’s diabetes by tracking blood glucose levels, controlling insulin doses, as well as administering glucagon to individual’s when they need it.
The Bionic Pancreas represents so many great things and has the potential to ease the immense amount of pressure faced by diabetics and carers. It could give users, a sense of, physical, emotional and physiological freedom from the day to day struggles and anxiety diabetes self-management presents.
The Bionic Pancreas is able to mimic a healthy pancreas, allowing for the normal release of liver enzymes as well as cellular metabolism.
The initial model included a few different components; a smart phone, a sensor, and two pumps. The sensor is able to take a snapshot of an individual’s blood glucose readings, sends information to a smartphone device, which then communicates via Bluetooth signals to two pumps (one containing insulin and the other containing glucagon). Insulin and glucagon are administered when the individual is in need of it just like a normal functioning pancreas would.
More recently, a single handheld device called the iLet was developed. This device contains both insulin and glucagon and is able to acts in opposition to each other, when food is consumed and in turn when blood glucose levels increase or decrease. This giving the diabetic suffers a more stable blood glucose reading.
Within the iLet there still exists 3 components all combined into one device:
- Continuous glucose sensor (sends glucose levels wirelessly to the device)
- Mathematical algorithms which determine and make therapeutic decisions based on a person’s age and weight.
- The algorithm is able to make suggestions every five minutes, 24 hours a day, giving a total of 288 daily decisions for each person’s insulin and glucagon requirements.
- Built in pumps to deliver insulin and glucagon (a weeks’ worth of insulin and glucagon)
As exciting as this new technological innovation is, I feel a level of uncertainty when it comes to handing over complete control to this device. Having to trust in this device is going to be a huge hurdle for me.
After all, the iLet is still only a machine! A very sophisticated machine made up of carefully calculated algorithms but a machine nonetheless. Machines break, machines malfunction, as I have experienced with my insulin pump. Also, for the past 21 years, I’ve been in charge of all the day to day decision making, when it comes to this condition.
However, as a pump wearer, I must remember I had to face the similar and very daunting task of deciding whether or not I should remain on multiple daily injections (MDI) or take that leap of faith and trust in this new technology. The thought of using a pump at the time was both thrilling and frightening. Putting part of my diabetes management into the hands of a machine, being attached to a wire and insert, whilst carrying around the insulin pump, completely terrified me. I realised then, how accustomed I was to my MDI, although I had lived with the arduous task of managing MDI, it was as simple as injecting and then putting it away. With the pump, it meant I had to be attached to it constantly.
Nevertheless, for me, the main focus and one that allowed me to accept the idea of wearing a pump full time, was the possible improvement I might have in my diabetes management. Also, at the time I was expecting my first child and I wanted to have the best control possible. I was given the opportunity to have a trial run. With it on I could see the vast improvement it made in my blood glucose control as a whole. It was then, that I decided to plunge into the deep end and take a chance with wearing the pump full time. Since then, I have never looked back
My control is much tighter than it was on MDl. The thing’s I feared, like having a wire and inserts attached to me, have all now become intertwined in my life. It has become my new “norm” and although I am connected to it 24/7, it has without a doubt liberated me.
And now, in the absence of a cure, the iLet has given me another glimmer of hope. I am now more open to the idea of being able to free myself even more from the struggles I face with this condition. It isn’t much different to the wearing a pump. Yes, it’s much bigger and more complex but I personally would be willing to trade in my pump for an iLet, if that meant that I would have better BG control, even better HbA1c results, less stress and the pressure to maintain good control and the possible reduction of developing diabetic complications.Then I embrace it fully!
Although I’m very much sold, there are a few things I must take into consideration.
- Being connected to the iLet, doesn’t mean that my job of managing my diabetes is over.
- I will still have to monitor the device and calibrate it twice a day, as it will be a necessity for me to enter my blood glucose levels before meals.
- Inputting information such as meals I plan to consume before I consume them is going to be part of the day to day running of the device.
- I anticipate error messages occurring
- Changing batteries and inserts.
- Insulin and glucagon cartridges will need to be refilled weekly.
We must remember that this device will still very much need our input and it will only be there as an aid. It will give us a much clearer depiction of how our blood glucose levels work in conjunction with different types of foods, exercise and stress at different times. Most importantly, it will give us a reprieve from the constant monitoring we do night and day. The pump has given me a degree of freedom and I feel that this will be greatly amplified when, god willing, I get the chance to experience using the iLet.
My experience with the pump has allowed me to be more open to this new technology. This sophisticated innovation will undoubtedly be welcomed and I guarantee it will change the lives of so many type 1 diabetics worldwide.
- Artificial pancreas hope for children with diabetes
- Introducing Beta Bionic: Bringing the iLet Bionic Pancreas to market
- Building a Bionic Pancreas
This week marks the beginning of Diabetes Week. This year the main focus is on, the misconceptions people have in terms of what diabetes is and how it affects individuals. The number of people with diabetes has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014.
There are many myths which surround diabetes, that make it hard for others to believe how deadly diabetes can be. Stereotypes and stigmas have created an inaccurate image of what the condition really is. As a diabetic blogger, I feel the responsibility to spread the correct message to my readers. Let’s start by setting the message straight about the different types of diabetes that can occur.
There are many types of diabetes, the main types include; type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes and MODY (Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young). Diabetes is a long- standing condition that affects the body’s ability to process glucose (sugars). All these types cause blood glucose levels to increase. Glucose levels are high due to the body’s inability to use the glucose properly.
This occurs because the pancreas either:
- No longer produces insulin
- The amount of insulin being produced is not enough, or
- The insulin that is being produced does not work properly (Insulin resistance)
Therefore glucose is not able to enter into the cells and remains in the blood stream.
Type 1 is an autoimmune disorder, which occurs due to the body’s immune system attacking and killing beta cells (insulin cells) in the pancreas, where they are made. The reason why this occurs still hasn’t been discovered, however there are researchers constantly working to find out this very reason. This autoimmune disorder is usually diagnosed in children but can also affect people up to the age of 30, resulting in no insulin being produced. People with this condition learn to use insulin therapy to manage their diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. It occurs due to insulin resistance, where the pancreas either does not produce enough insulin or the insulin that is being produced does not work properly. Type 2 diabetes for some people can be managed through diet and exercise. Some people also need medication to manage their blood glucose levels/ diabetes.
Gestational diabetes affects women during pregnancy. This usually occurs during the second or third trimester. Women who develop gestational diabetes during their pregnancy usually don’t have diabetes beforehand and for some women gestational diabetes disappears after the birth of the baby. Women who are diagnosed with gestational diabetes in the first trimester, there is a possibility that the condition existed beforehand.
During the second trimester blood tests are done to determine whether or not gestational diabetes is present. If gestational diabetes was present in previous pregnancies, then tests are performed earlier.
Pregnancy hormones can affect the body’s ability to allow insulin to function as it should. This can then cause insulin resistance to occur. Pregnancy already puts a huge strain on the body, so this additional strain on the body can sometimes cause some women to develop gestational diabetes. Woman who are likely at risk include, women who have suffered from gestational diabetes before, overweight or obese women, women who have had very large babies and have had a family history of diabetes. Ethnicity also plays a huge part in the development of gestational diabetes. If you are of, Caribbean, South Asia, African or Middle Eastern decent, then you are at a higher risk of developing gestational diabetes.
MODY diabetes or Type 3 diabetes
What is this type? MODY stands for Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young. This type of diabetes is quite different from both Type 1, Type 2 and gestational diabetes. It is strongly present in families and is triggered by a mutation in a single gene. If a person carrying this gene has a child with a person who doesn’t carry the gene, then any children they have will have a 50 % chance of inheriting the gene. If a child inherits this gene they will then go onto develop MODY before they reach 25 years old, whatever their weight, lifestyle or ethnicity. These diabetic also don’t necessarily need to take insulin either.
Types of MODY:
- HNF1-alpha– this is the most common type of MODY and can be found in populations with European ancestry. It accounts for about 70% of all cases in Europe. People with this type of MODY don’t need to take insulin, instead they take a mixture of sulphonylureas tablets.
- HNF4-alpha– this type of MODY is very rare and usually affects people whose birth weight was more than 9lbs or suffered a low blood sugar level after birth. People who have this type of MODY are also treated with sulphonylureas tablets.
- HNF1-beta – People with this type of MODY develop several problems which can include; renal cysts, abnormalities in uterine, gout as well as diabetes. With this type of MODY, if diabetes develops insulin treatment becomes essential. A healthy diet and exercise must also be followed to manage diabetes better.
- Glucokinase – This gene once present and functioning allows the body to recognise increase in blood glucose levels. If this gene isn’t working then the body isn’t able to detect high blood glucose levels, allowing the BG level to go higher than it should. The BG level is only slightly higher between ( 5 – 8 mmols/l). There are no noticeable symptoms and it can only be detected through routine tests. No treatment is needed for this type of MODY.
It’s extremely important to know if you have any of these MODY types. If treatment is needed then you can then get it. Also if you have the gene, there is a 50 % chance that you could then pass this gene onto your children. Therefore genetic testing usually is extended to other family members.
I hope that this has helped you to understand the different types of diabetes that can occur. For more information on the prevalence of diabetes and also if you want to help to spread the correct message, then click the links below.
Diabetes Awareness Poster (print and share)
Thanks for stopping by friends
It’s been a while since I last wrote a post. I’ve totally been MIA lately due to a lot of different things happening in my life at the moment, some things are D related and others are just the usual day to day life occurrences. Anyway maybe we’ll get into that at another time.
In terms of my D, one of the things I’ve been trying my best to do is to get a much tighter grip on my blood glucose (BG) levels and in turn my HbA1c. I’m pleased to say that I was able to take my HbA1c down from 7.5% to 6.4% YAY!!
As a diabetic, I know all too well that when it comes to diabetes it doesn’t affect all diabetics in the same way. By this I mean, we can’t all use the same basal rates, count and eat the same carbohydrates and even take the same insulin doses in order for our diabetes to be well controlled. Unfortunately, it’s a lot more complex than that. I’ve found that with my diabetes and getting things to work it is all determined by trial and error.
What is this you ask?
I think most diabetics and even the professionals (who help us diabetics with our blood glucose (BG) levels and insulin calculations) all use this method. This method works by basically trying something out to see if it works. If it works I stick to it, if it doesn’t then I shift numbers, tweak ratios and rates etc.
So what have I been doing to keep my dreaded and sometimes tedious BG levels under control? Here are a few things I’ve been doing:
I really do believe that exercise is necessary when it comes to managing my diabetes. I usually work out at least 4 to 5 times in a week, however when I first started working out I started with a realistic and manageable goal of 2 days a week for at least half an hour at a time. I started with a little Zumba and one of my favourite Youtubers Cassey Ho. I found that I started to enjoy it and besides it giving me a great deal of energy it also helped with my overall BG control. Initially my BG level dropped quiet frequently and I had to make sure I consumed more carbs to maintain a good level. However my insulin requirement started to decrease across the day and I found in general I just needed to reduce my basal rates, increase my insulin to carb ratios and give myself a smaller bolus after meals. During my whole working out transition I had to use the trial and error method and a lot of consultations with my diabetic doctor to see what would work best with my BG.
Coconut water: I started to drink coconut water after I found that caffeine in general wasn’t a good option for me and my BG levels. You can read about my experiences with caffeine and coffee in particular (here). Once I started drinking coconut water my cravings for coffee seemed to reduce a great deal. I started to find that every time I drank coconut water my energy levels were boosted. The days I didn’t have any I noticed I definitely had less energy than normal.
There are so many benefits to drinking coconut water. Here are a few of those benefits:
– It hydrates the body even better than water
– It is rich in dietary fibre, enzymes, vitamin C, minerals such as magnesium, potassium and amino acids.
– It is also very low in calories and cholesterol
– It speeds up the metabolism
– A weird thing I found out about coconut water is: If you wanted to bathe in coconut water it would be really great for your skin (hahaha never tried that one)
-It also boosts the immune system, which is a bonus for us D’s as our immune systems are generally a lot weaker. Actually since I started drinking it I haven’t had a cold.
-Because it’s a natural product it’s safe to drink during pregnancy and breastfeeding and is also safe for younger children.
Matcha Tea: I’ve been drinking Matcha tea now for a few years. Matcha is a finely grinded green powder made from green tea and is used in Japanese tea ceremonies. It’s highly nutritional and has very high antioxidant content. I love Matcha and in relation to my diabetes I usually try to drink it at least 3 times a week. When, I’m having a day where my BG levels are constantly dropping or if they remain higher than I’d like. It seems to stabilise my levels and usually it gets it back into a normal range.
Low carb diet: Eating a lower carb diet has really helped me manage my BGs better. I still consume carbs but I try not to have more than 300g of carbs a day. I’ve found my BG levels are much more stable and easier to control.
Dairy: I recently discovered dairy and I aren’t the best of friends. Unfortunately I have become lactose intolerant. I noticed that whenever I consumed any dairy products, I would see a spike in my BGs. After I stopped consuming products with dairy in it, I stopped having these spikes in my BG levels and also my digestion seems to be working a lot better.
Eating right for your blood type: I’ll have to write a separate post just on this, to explain what this is all about. In the meantime there is a book by Dr Peter J.D’Adamo which goes into detail called “Eat right for your type”. He has also written a book based on diabetes called “Diabetes and fighting it with the blood type diet”.
De-stressing: I really do believe this is also a major factor when it comes to BG levels. Any stress these days seems to have an effect on my BG levels. I try to take myself away from the daily stresses of life and make time for just me. Selfish you might say but it makes for a better Amina, mummy and wife. Plus my BG levels really seem to like the little time I give back to myself. (I’d definitely suggest doing this)
Finger pricks: Finally I’ve been testing my BG levels a lot more frequently on a daily basis. I now try to test at least 8-10 times a day, sometimes more which gives a really accurate picture of what is happening with my BG levels. I was using the Dexcom sensor which I found was really beneficial when it came to my BG levels. However it was only for a short period of time and after using it I hope that it will be something that I can fund and use in the future.
I really feel that all these things put together have contributed to getting my BG levels and HbA1c in better control. However these things seem to work for me, it may not be the same for you. I also had to consult my doctor and nurses frequently when trying out these options. I’m always willing to try new things if it means tightening my BG control. I’d love to hear of anything which you’ve found helps you in your overall diabetes control.
Thanks for stopping by
By sites I mean, injection and insulin pump sites. The site, where a needle must pierce the skin to allow insulin to be delivered into the body. As a type 1 diabetic, this is something which can’t be avoided. Whether you’re using an insulin pump or injecting, it’s really important that you rotate the sites you use.
“ROTATION IS KEY “
After many years of injecting, and now using an insulin pump. I must admit at times I do get comfortable with using certain sites on my body. It’s very easy to slip into the “bad” habit of using the same sites over and over.
No rotation = lumpy bumpy body
Over use of sites will stimulate the development of lumps. These lumps often seem soft and grape like at the site of injection. The proper term for these lumps are,
Fat hypertrophy also known as hypertrophy or insulin hypertrophy.
These lumps are a build up of extra fat deposits, due to the site being used too often. The Insulin injected isn’t able to flow around the body freely. The way insulin is absorbed is changed, and is unable to circulate as it should do. Therefore making it more difficult to keep blood glucose levels on target.
So what sites can we use?
Here are a few of the sites which can be used when attaching an insulin pump or when injecting with injections. Also refer to the picture below.
- Waist area (love handles)
- Backs of upper arms
When I use to inject 5 times a day, the frequency of lumps and bumps occurring were very common. I changed the size of my needles to the (novoFine 0.3 x 8mm needles) to help to prevent these lumps. Even though I was “rotating my sites”, and I now had “these finer smaller needles” I would still develop small bumps under the skin. I found that exercise helped to get rid of these lumps.
Now that I’m using an insulin pump the occurrence of lumps and bumps are far fewer. I try not to leave my insert on a site for more than 3 days ( *this also happens to be the maximum recommended time by the *CDC). After this point, I find that my skin does become raised and bumpy.
Site Rotation tips
“Monitor those blood glucose levels (BGL’s), because literally your life depends on it.”
As time goes by you will start to realise which sites are better for the best BGL control. Talk with your diabetes team and see if their suggestions are good for you.
- Avoid injecting or placing your pump near your belly button, or near any moles or scars. Tissue in these area are usually a lot harder. Therefore insulin absorption will be a lot slower.
- Try to use your outer upper arm, this part is a lot fattier. Placing an insert or injecting in this site is difficult, so when I put on an insert I press my arm against a wall to attach it.
- Thighs – avoid inner thighs, because it could be more painful!
- Change insert every 2 -3 days and change needles after every use!
- Make sure the area you are going to inject or attach your pump to is clean.
- Don’t get comfortable. Don’t use the same sites. Work that body! Avoid those unsightly lumps and bumps
- Get your sweat on. Try to find an activity that you can maintain and most of all enjoy!
Which are my best sites you ask?
Well, the best sites for me have changed throughout the years. I try my best to avoid my thighs and stomach area (when I was on injections these were my favourite sites). By frequently injecting in those site it has left me with a few small lumps, but being active has helped to reduce and even get rid of the lumps. At the moment, I’ve found that the upper backs of my arms and my derrière region are great for the best blood glucose levels and my overall control. I have no idea why this is. It’s just right for me right now. Everyone’s best sites are different. It’s up to you to figure out which site is best for insulin absorption.
“Remember to rotate your sites, avoid those lumps and bumps on your skin, and find the best sites for you to be able to achieve the best blood glucose levels.”
Changing the “insert” before it needs to be changed
There are times, when I attach my insert and it just won’t stay put, It doesn’t feel comfortable or it is stuck to me like glue. These all result in me having to change the site. These are a few examples of when I may have to change my insert.
- Accidentally rubbing my hand over my insert and detaching it. I need to replace it.
- Creaming my hands and skin and I start to feel my insert peeling.
- As I attach the insert I get a sharp pain, followed by blood coming through the tubing of my pump. I need to replace it.
- In the middle of the night, my pump has a fit, because there is an occlusion in the tubing.
- Time to replace my insert and it just won’t come away from the site. AHHH!
Have you ever had lumps and bumps? Which sites are best for you? Do you get comfortable with certain sites? What do you do to stay active and get rid of those lumps?
*CDC – Centers of Disease Control
One of the reasons why I stress the importance of having good blood glucose levels and HbA1c control, is to avoid complications caused by diabetes. These complications can affect the eyes, the nerves, the kidneys, muscles and the heart. This is something which worries me a great deal. However my worries, drive me to want to have better, tighter control of my blood glucose levels.
Complications are less likely to develop and are not as severe with diabetics who have good blood glucose level control. If I can put in the effort to have the best control that I can, these complications are less likely to arise.
“Complications with a capital C”
Complication number 1
Retinopathy – This is one of the complications which totally freaks me out.This complication causes damage to the retina. All diabetics are at risk of developing retinopathy, whether they control their diabetes by diet, tablet or insulin. There is a much greater risk, if your diabetes isn’t controlled well, if you have high blood pressure and if you’ve had your diabetes for a prolonged period of time.
Poor control and high blood glucose levels will cause retinopathy to occur. Over a period of time these high blood glucose levels, will affect the small blood vessels in the retina, causing them to become inflamed and damaged without the patient’s knowledge.
Blood vessels burst causing haemorrhage and swelling. Blood leaks to the back of the eye (in the picture above, this is represented as spots near the vessels) and oxygen is unable to enter the retina. This results in the growth of abnormal blood vessels on the surface of the retina. Without treatment, retinopathy continues to progress, eventually leading to blindness. Having good blood glucose control and ultimately a good HbA1c, will help to reduce the risks caused by retinopathy.
There are different types of retinopathy
1. Background Retinopathy (or non- proliferative retinopathy):
In this initial stage, many people do not notice any changes in their vision. These early changes are reversible and do not affect vision. Diabetics must have regular eye checks to prevent these early stages progressing to a more serious stage of retinopathy. If this early stage occurs, it can be detected and monitored closely.
Glucose build up in the eye and damages the small blood vessels in the retina. Diabetics can develop a condition called macular edema. Damaged blood vessels leak fluid onto an area of the eye called the ‘macula’. This part of the eye allows you to see fine detail. With maculopathy the macula becomes swollen and can causes vision to be become blurred.
As retinopathy develops, the retina becomes deprived of a good blood supply, due to damaged blood vessels. This causes blood vessels to proliferate (or grow). Due to a lack of oxygen in the retina and as the eye tries to repair itself. This causes new brittle blood vessels to grow in the retina. These new blood vessels can bleed and grow rapidly. If this isn’t treated quickly it can cause vision to be clouded, resulting in a damaged retina. In severe cases this can cause retinal detachment, and glaucoma.
There are 3 main treatments used for diabetic retinopathy, which have been effective in decreasing the loss of vision.These treatments include,
- Laser treatment
- Anti-VEGF injection
To be continued…………………………….
Let’s face it you can never really be ready for that first “hypo”. “What was to come?” Although I’d read about the symptoms, I could never have imagined the way it would affect me. I wasn’t really prepared for the feelings I was going to experience. The most frightening thing about it all was that I didn’t even realise, that I was already beginning to go through some of these symptoms. In all honesty, I wasn’t sure! I had nothing that I could measure against and confirm that it was a hypo.
This was my first hypo experience!
Initially I felt hungry. But I just thought, “maybe I was just hungry.” Lunch was nearly ready so I waited patiently. I didn’t feel that I needed to alert my mother. “was it a hypo, should I say something?”. Believe it, or not, my first reaction wasn’t to go and check my BGL. Although you’d think “well why didn’t she just do that?”. But remember I was a child of 11 and this was the first big responsibility I had ever had. A responsibility which I was still familiarising myself with. I can only put it down to my inexperience and being new to my diabetes.
Unknowingly as my symptoms progressed, I felt and realised, that these were some of the symptoms I’d read about, “Perhaps I was having a hypo”. I remember stumbling over to my mother, feeling very upset, sweating profusely and telling her, “I think I’m having a hypo.” Her reaction was instant. She sat me down, gave me a sweet drink, which I gulped down straight away. She seemed to be moving at the speed of lighting. She tested my BGL, and we both looked down in shock as my blood glucose meter read 2.1. In my mind I thought, “is that right?” At the time, I just knew that this was way below the normal level.
I felt absolutely awful, I was unable to do much for myself. My clothes were soaked from sweating and for the first time in my life I felt so unlike myself. I was confused by what was happening to me and was unable to move as fast as I would like to. I quickly ate the lunch my mother had prepared. It took a few minutes for the sweet drink and then the food to take effect and for me to feel a little like myself again. Coming out of the hypo my tongue tingled, my hands shook and I was really exhausted. In my mind I thought,
“So this is what a hypo is? I must have been hypo’in for a while!”
It was a scary thing to go through for first time. I can only imagine what it was like for my mother watching me go through this first hypo. Even now, hypo’s can still be very worrying and scary. My first reaction to feeling hungry or dizzy, is to test my BGL as soon as possible. This allows me to decide whether it’s my BGL or if I’m just hungry. It’s really important to recognise at least one of your symptoms. If you don’t have symptoms, keeping a close eye on your BGL ‘s is the only way to do it. Teach the people around you, and make them aware of your symptoms and how they can help you. I can’t stress how vital this is.
How to treat mild and severe hypo’s?
- The first thing I usually reach for is a bottle of Lucozade. But any energy drink or sweet sugary drink is fine. I consume 50mls, which increases my BGL instantly. The great thing about Lucozade, is that it taste great, its easy to consume and they recently started doing more flavours.
- Although my BGL raises instantly, in order to keep it stable I frequently follow up with some form of carbohydrate i.e. a banana, a slice of bread, raisins or dates etc.
- I’ll check my BGL at least an hour after my hypo.
I always carry some form of sweet drink with me (usually Lucozade, as they come in a smaller bottle and are perfect for carrying in a bag). I will also keep some gluco tabs or gluco juice handy. GlucoTabs are fast acting chewable dextrose tablets, which contain 4g of glucose and can be used to treat mild hypo’s. They also come in two great flavours (orange and berry). Gluco juice is a caffeine free shot-sized sugar boost that can also help to treat mild or moderate hypo’s. Each bottle contains 60 mls of juice, containing 15g of fast acting carbohydrates.
When hypo symptoms persist and a person is either unable to treat themselves, or they are unconscious. Glucagon injections are used to treat the severe hypoglycaemia. This is a hormone which helps to increase BGL. When glucagon is injected, it is absorbed into the blood stream. The glucagon moves to the liver and encourages the liver to release glucose into the blood. The effect of glucagon isn’t immediate, it usually takes between 10 -15 minutes to raise BGL’s back to a safe level. I’ve never had to use the glucagon injection, as my hypo’s have never been as severe as this. However I always keep a glucagon injection in the house, for when I might need it.
What was your first hypo experience like? How do you treat yours? If you’re not diabetic, have you ever observed a diabetic during a hypo, or been involved in anyway to help them etc? Because I have no experience using the glucagon, what are your experience’s of using one?